Health Topics

Women

Women's Health
National Library of Medicine

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently.

Unique issues include pregnancy, menopause, and conditions of the female organs. Women can have a healthy pregnancy by getting early and regular prenatal care. They should also get recommended breast cancer, cervical cancer, and bone density screenings.

Women and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. For example,:

  • Women are more likely to die following a heart attack than men
  • Women are more likely to show signs of depression and anxiety than men
  • The effects of sexually transmitted diseases can be more serious in women
  • Osteoarthritis affects more women than men
  • Women are more likely to have urinary tract problems

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


Women's Health
Women
Population Groups
Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues include pregnancy, ...
HIV/AIDS in Women
National Library of Medicine
AIDS in Women
What are HIV and AIDS?

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS.

How does HIV spread?

HIV can spread in different ways:

  • Through unprotected sex with a person who has HIV. This is the most common way it spreads. Women may be at greater risk of being infected with HIV during sexual contact than men are. For example, vaginal tissue is fragile and can tear during sex. This can let HIV enter the body. Also, the vagina has a large surface area that can be exposed to the virus.
  • By sharing drug needles
  • Through contact with the blood of a person who has HIV
  • From mother to baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
How does HIV/AIDS affect women differently from men?

About one in four people in the United States who have HIV are women. Women who have HIV/AIDS have some different problems from men:

  • Complications such as
    • Repeated vaginal yeast infections
    • Severe pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    • A higher risk of cervical cancer
    • Menstrual cycle problems
    • A higher risk of osteoporosis
    • Entering menopause younger or having more severe hot flashes
  • Different, sometimes more severe, side effects from the medicines that treat HIV/AIDS
  • Drug interactions between some HIV/AIDS medicines and hormonal birth control
  • The risk of giving HIV to their baby while pregnancy or during childbirth
Are there treatments for HIV/AIDS?

There is no cure, but there are many medicines to treat both HIV infection and the infections and cancers that come with it. People who get early treatment canlive longer and healthier lives.


HIV Infections
Women
Immune System
What are HIV and AIDS? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. ...
Heart Disease in Women
National Library of Medicine

In the United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the major reason people have heart attacks.

Heart diseases that affect women more than men include:

  • Coronary microvascular disease (MVD) - a problem that affects the heart's tiny arteries
  • Broken heart syndrome - extreme emotional stress leading to severe but often short-term heart muscle failure

The older a woman gets, the more likely she is to get heart disease. But women of all ages should be concerned about heart disease. All women can take steps to prevent it by practicing healthy lifestyle habits.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


Heart Diseases
Women
Blood, Heart and Circulation
In the United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or blockage of the ...
Sexual Problems in Women
National Library of Medicine
Dyspareunia
Female Circumcision
Female Sexual Dysfunction
Vaginismus

There are many problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. They include:

  • Lack of sexual desire
  • Inability to become aroused
  • Lack of orgasm, or sexual climax
  • Painful intercourse

These problems may have physical or psychological causes. Physical causes may include conditions like diabetes, heart disease, nerve disorders, or hormone problems. Some drugs can also affect desire and function. Psychological causes may include work-related stress and anxiety. They may also include depression or concerns about marriage or relationship problems. For some women, the problem results from past sexual trauma.

Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than a few months or cause distress for you or your partner, you should see your health care provider.


Vaginismus
Dyspareunia
Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological
Women
Sexual Health Issues
Female Reproductive System
There are many problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. They include: Lack of sexual desire Inability to become aroused Lack of orgasm, or sexual ...
Women's Health Checkup
National Library of Medicine
Pelvic Exam

Regular health exams and tests can help find problems before they start. They also can help find problems early, when your chances for treatment are better. As a woman, you need some special exams and screenings. During your checkup, your health care provider will usually do:

  • A pelvic exam - an exam to check if internal female organs are normal by feeling their shape and size.
  • A Pap test - a test to check for cancer of the cervix, the opening to a woman's uterus. Cells from the cervix are examined under a microscope.
  • A clinical breast exam - to check for breast cancer by feeling and looking at your breasts.

Your health care provider may also recommend other tests, including a mammogram or a test for HPV.


Women's Health
Physical Examination
Women
Wellness and Lifestyle
Regular health exams and tests can help find problems before they start. They also can help find problems early, when your chances for treatment are better. ...
Chlamydia Infections
National Library of Medicine
What is chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat. Men can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat.

How do you get chlamydia?

You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman can also pass chlamydia to her baby during childbirth.

If you've had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can get re-infected if you have unprotected sex with someone who has it.

Who is at risk of getting chlamydia?

Chlamydia is more common in young people, especially young women. You are more likely to get it if you don't consistently use a condom, or if you have multiple partners.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

Chlamydia doesn't usually cause any symptoms. So you may not realize that you have it. People with chlamydia who have no symptoms can still pass the disease to others. If you do have symptoms, they may not appear until several weeks after you have sex with an infected partner.

Symptoms in women include:

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge, which may have a strong smell
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Pain during intercourse

If the infection spreads, you might get lower abdominal pain, pain during sex, nausea, or fever.

Symptoms in men include:

  • Discharge from your penis
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Burning or itching around the opening of your penis
  • Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (although this is less common)

If the chlamydia infects the rectum (in men or women), it can cause rectal pain, discharge, and/or bleeding.

How is chlamydia diagnosed?

There are lab tests to diagnose chlamydia. Your health care provider may ask you to provide a urine sample. For women, providers sometimes use (or ask you to use) a cotton swab to get a sample from your vagina to test for chlamydia.

Who should be tested for chlamydia?

You should go to your health provider for a test if you have symptoms of chlamydia, or if you have a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease. Pregnant women should get a test when they go to their first prenatal visit.

People at higher risk should get checked for chlamydia every year:

  • Sexually active women 25 and younger
  • Older women who have new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted disease
  • Men who have sex with men (MSM)
What other problems can chlamydia cause?

In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications.

Men often don't have health problems from chlamydia. Sometimes it can infect the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm). This can cause pain, fever, and, rarely, infertility.

Both men and women can develop reactive arthritis because of a chlamydia infection. Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that happens as a "reaction" to an infection in the body.

Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. It may also make it more likely for your baby to be born too early.

Untreated chlamydia may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV/AIDS.

What are the treatments for chlamydia?

Antibiotics will cure the infection. You may get a one-time dose of the antibiotics, or you may need to take medicine every day for 7 days. Antibiotics cannot repair any permanent damage that the disease has caused.

To prevent spreading the disease to your partner, you should not have sex until the infection has cleared up. If you got a one-time dose of antibiotics, you should wait 7 days after taking the medicine to have sex again. If you have to take medicine every day for 7 days, you should not have sex again until you have finished taking all of the doses of your medicine.

It is common to get a repeat infection, so you should get tested again about three months after treatment.

Can chlamydia be prevented?

The only sure way to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading chlamydia. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Chlamydia Infections
Infections
Sexual Health Issues
Female Reproductive System
Male Reproductive System
What is chlamydia? Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and ...
Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
National Library of Medicine
Ovarian Insufficiency
Premature Ovarian Failure
POF
POI
What is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)?

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as premature ovarian failure, happens when a woman's ovaries stop working normally before she is 40.

Many women naturally experience reduced fertility when they are about 40 years old. They may start getting irregular menstrual periods as they transition to menopause. For women with POI, irregular periods and reduced fertility start before the age of 40. Sometimes it can start as early as the teenage years.

POI is different from premature menopause. With premature menopause, your periods stop before age 40. You can no longer get pregnant. The cause can be natural or it can be a disease, surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. With POI, some women still have occasional periods. They may even get pregnant. In most cases of POI, the cause is unknown.

What causes primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)?

In about 90% of cases, the exact cause of POI is unknown.

Research shows that POI is related to problems with the follicles. Follicles are small sacs in your ovaries. Your eggs grow and mature inside them. One type of follicle problem is that you run out of working follicles earlier than normal. Another is that the follicles are not working properly. In most cases, the cause of the follicle problem is unknown. But sometimes the cause may be:

  • Genetic disorders such as Fragile X syndrome and Turner syndrome
  • A low number of follicles
  • Autoimmune diseases, including thyroiditis and Addison disease
  • Chemotherapy or radiation therapy
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Toxins, such as cigarette smoke, chemicals, and pesticides
Who is at risk for primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)?

Certain factors can raise a woman's risk of POI:

  • Family history. Women who have a mother or sister with POI are more likely to have it.
  • Genes. Some changes to genes and genetic conditions put women at higher risk for POI. For example, women Fragile X syndrome or Turner syndrome are at higher risk.
  • Certain diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and viral infections
  • Cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy
  • Age. Younger women can get POI, but it becomes more common between the ages of 35-40.
What are the symptoms of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)?

The first sign of POI is usually irregular or missed periods. Later symptoms may be similar to those of natural menopause:

  • Hot flashes
  • Night sweats
  • Irritability
  • Poor concentration
  • Decreased sex drive
  • Pain during sex
  • Vaginal dryness

For many women with POI, trouble getting pregnant or infertility is the reason they go to their health care provider.

What other problems can primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) cause?

Since POI causes you to have lower levels of certain hormones, you are at greater risk for other health conditions, including:

  • Anxiety and depression. Hormonal changes caused by POI can contribute to anxiety or lead to depression.
  • Dry eye syndrome and eye surface disease. Some women with POI have one of these eye conditions. Both can cause discomfort and may lead to blurred vision. If not treated, these conditions can cause permanent eye damage.
  • Heart disease. Lower levels of estrogen can affect the muscles lining the arteries and can increase the buildup of cholesterol in the arteries. These factors increase your risk of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
  • Infertility.
  • Low thyroid function. This problem also is called hypothyroidism. The thyroid is a gland that makes hormones that control your body's metabolism and energy level. Low levels thyroid hormones can affect your metabolism and can cause very low energy, mental sluggishness, and other symptoms.
  • Osteoporosis. The hormone estrogen helps keep bones strong. Without enough estrogen, women with POI often develop osteoporosis. It is a bone disease that causes weak, brittle bones that are more likely to break.
How is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) diagnosed?

To diagnose POI, your health care provider may do:

  • A medical history, including asking whether you have relatives with POI
  • A pregnancy test, to make sure that you are not pregnant
  • A physical exam, to look for signs of other disorders which could be causing your symptoms
  • Blood tests, to check for certain hormone levels. You may also have a blood test to do a chromosome analysis. A chromosome is the part of a cell that contains genetic information.
  • A pelvic ultrasound, to see whether or not the ovaries are enlarged or have multiple follicles
How is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) treated?

Currently, there is no proven treatment to restore normal function to a woman's ovaries. But there are treatments for some of the symptoms of POI. There are also ways to lower your health risks and treat the conditions that POI can cause:

  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT).HRT is the most common treatment. It gives your body the estrogen and other hormones that your ovaries are not making. HRT improves sexual health and decreases the risks for heart disease and osteoporosis. You usually take it until about age 50; that's about the age when menopause usually begins.
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements. Because women with POI are at higher risk for osteoporosis, you should take calcium and vitamin D every day.
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF). If you have POI and you wish to become pregnant, you may consider trying IVF.
  • Regular physical activity and a healthy body weight.Getting regular exercise and controlling your weight can lower your risk for osteoporosis and heart disease.
  • Treatments for associated conditions. If you have a condition that is related to POI, it is important to treat that as well. Treatments may involve medicines and hormones.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
Women
Pregnancy and Reproduction
Endocrine System
Female Reproductive System
What is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)? Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as premature ovarian failure, happens when a woman's ovaries ...
Breast Cancer
National Library of Medicine
Paget's Disease of Breast
What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in breast tissue. It happens when cells in the breast change and grow out of control. The cells usually form a tumor.

Sometimes the cancer does not spread any further. This is called "in situ." If the cancer spreads outside the breast, the cancer is called "invasive." It may just spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes. Or the cancer may metastasize (spread to other parts of the body) through the lymph system or the blood.

Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women in the United States. Rarely, it can also affect men.

What are the types of breast cancer?

There are different types of breast cancer. The types are based on which breast cells turn into cancer. The types include:

  • Ductal carcinoma, which begins in the cells of the ducts. This is the most common type.
  • Lobular carcinoma, which begins in the lobules. It is more often found in both breasts than other types of breast cancer.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer, in which cancer cells block lymph vessels in the skin of the breast. The breast becomes warm, red, and swollen. This is a rare type.
  • Paget's disease of the breast, which is a cancer involving the skin of the nipple. It usually also affects the darker skin around the nipple. It is also rare.
What causes breast cancer?

Breast cancer happens when there are changes in the genetic material (DNA). Often, the exact cause of these genetic changes is unknown.

But sometimes these genetic changes are inherited, meaning that you are born with them. Breast cancer that is caused by inherited genetic changes is called hereditary breast cancer.

There are also certain genetic changes that can raise your risk of breast cancer, including changes called BRCA1 and BRCA2. These two changes also raise your risk of ovarian and other cancers.

Besides genetics, your lifestyle and the environment can affect your risk of breast cancer.

Who is at risk for breast cancer?

The factors which raise your risk of breast cancer include:

  • Older age
  • History of breast cancer or benign (noncancer) breast disease
  • Inherited risk of breast cancer, including having BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene changes
  • Dense breast tissue
  • A reproductive history that leads to more exposure to the estrogen hormone, including
    • Menstruating at an early age
    • Being at an older age when you first gave birth or never having given birth
    • Starting menopause at a later age
  • Taking hormone therapy for symptoms of menopause
  • Radiation therapy to the breast or chest
  • Obesity
  • Drinking alcohol
What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?

The signs and symptoms of breast cancer include:

  • A new lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the armpit
  • A change in the size or shape of the breast
  • A dimple or puckering in the skin of the breast. It may look like the skin of an orange.
  • A nipple turned inward into the breast
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk. The discharge might happen suddenly, be bloody, or happen in only one breast.
  • Scaly, red, or swollen skin in the nipple area or the breast
  • Pain in any area of the breast
How is breast cancer diagnosed?

Your health care provider may use many tools to diagnose breast cancer and figure out which type you have:

  • A physical exam, including a clinical breast exam (CBE). This involves checking for any lumps or anything else that seems unusual with the breasts and armpits.
  • A medical history
  • Imaging tests, such as a mammogram, an ultrasound, or an MRI
  • Breast biopsy
  • Blood chemistry tests, which measure different substances in the blood, including electrolytes, fats, proteins, glucose (sugar), and enzymes. Some of the specific blood chemistry tests include a basic metabolic panel (BMP), a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), and an electrolyte panel.

If these tests show that you have breast cancer, you will have tests which study the cancer cells. These tests help your provider decide which treatment would be best for you. The tests may include:

  • Genetic tests for genetic changes such as BRCA and TP53
  • HER2 test. HER2 is a protein involved with cell growth. It is on the outside of all breast cells. If your breast cancer cells have more HER2 than normal, they can grow more quickly and spread to other parts of the body.
  • An estrogen and progesterone receptor test. This test measures the amount of estrogen and progesterone (hormones) receptors in cancer tissue. If there are more receptors than normal, the cancer is called estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive. This type of breast cancer may grow more quickly.

Another step is staging the cancer. Staging involves doing tests to find out whether the cancer has spread within the breast or to other parts of the body. The tests may include other diagnostic imaging tests and a sentinel lymph node biopsy. This biopsy is done to see whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes.

What are the treatments for breast cancer?

Treatments for breast cancer include:

  • Surgery such as
    • A mastectomy, which removes the whole breast
    • A lumpectomy to remove the cancer and some normal tissue around it, but not the breast itself
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone therapy, which blocks cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow
  • Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances that attack specific cancer cells with less harm to normal cells
  • Immunotherapy
Can breast cancer be prevented?

You may be able to help prevent breast cancer by making healthy lifestyle changes such as:

  • Staying at a healthy weight
  • Limiting alcohol use
  • Getting enough exercisee
  • Limiting your exposure to estrogen by
    • Breastfeeding your babies if you can
    • Limiting hormone therapy

If you are at high risk, your health care provider may suggest that you take certain medicines to lower the risk. Some women at very high risk may decide to get a mastectomy (of their healthy breasts) to prevent breast cancer.

It's also important to get regular mammograms. They may be able to identify breast cancer in the early stages, when it is easier to treat.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast
Breast Neoplasms
Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome
Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms
Cancers
Women
Female Reproductive System
... the second most common type of cancer in women in the United States. Rarely, it can also ...
Infections and Pregnancy
National Library of Medicine
Pregnancy, Infections in

During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. But other infections can be dangerous to you, your baby, or both. Some infections may lead to preterm birth and low birth weight babies. Others can cause serious illness, birth defects, and lifelong disabilities, such as hearing loss or learning problems.

Some of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include:

  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV)
  • Group B strep (GBS)
  • Hepatitis
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Yeast infections
  • Zika virus

To try to prevent infections,:

  • Don't eat raw or undercooked meat
  • Don't share food or drinks with other people
  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Don't empty cat litter. Cats can transmit toxoplasmosis.

If you do get an infection during pregnancy, contact your health care provider about how best to protect you and your baby. Only some medicines are safe during pregnancy.


Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Infections
Pregnancy and Reproduction
Female Reproductive System
During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. But other infections can be dangerous ...
Domestic Violence
National Library of Medicine
Abuse
Partner Abuse
Spouse Abuse
Violence
Battery
Intimate partner violence
Spousal abuse
What is domestic violence?

Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It can be the abuse of a spouse or partner, which is also known as intimate partner violence. Or it could be the abuse of a child, older relative, or other family member.

Domestic violence may include different types of abuse, such as:

  • Physical violence that can lead to injuries such as bruises or fractures (broken bones)
  • Sexual violence, including sexual assault
  • Emotional abuse, which includes threats, name-calling, put-downs, and humiliation. It can also involve controlling behavior, such as telling the victim how to act or dress and not letting them see family or friends.
  • Economic abuse, which involves controlling access to money
  • Stalking, which is repeated, unwanted contact that causes fear or concern for the safety of the victim. This can include watching or following the victim. The stalker may send repeated, unwanted phone calls or texts.
Who is affected by domestic violence?

It is hard to know exactly how common domestic violence is, because it's often not reported.

But we do know that anyone can be affected by it. Domestic violence can happen to men or women of all different ages. It affects people with all levels of income and education.

What are the signs that someone is a victim of domestic violence?

If you think that a loved one might be the victim of domestic violence, learn about the different types of abuse and watch for these signs:

Does your friend or loved one:

  • Have unexplained cuts or bruises?
  • Avoid friends, family, and favorite activities?
  • Make excuses for their partner's behavior?
  • Look uncomfortable or fearful around their partner?

Does your friend or loved one's partner:

  • Yell at or make fun of them?
  • Try to control them by making all the decisions?
  • Check up on them at work or school?
  • Force them to do sexual things they don't want to do?
  • Threaten to hurt himself or herself if the partner wants to break up?
What can I do if I am a victim of domestic violence?

Your safety is the most important concern. If you are in immediate danger, call 911.

If you are not in immediate danger, you can:

  • Get medical care if you have been injured or sexually assaulted
  • Call a helpline for free, anonymous help. You can contact the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 800-799-SAFE (7233) or 800-787-3224 (TTY).
  • Find out where to get help in your community. Contact local organizations that can help you.
  • Make a safety plan to leave. Domestic violence usually does not get better. Think about a safe place for you to go and all of the things that you will need when you leave.
  • Save the evidence. Keep evidence of abuse, such as pictures of your injuries or threatening emails or texts. Make sure that it is in a safe place the abuser cannot access.
  • Talk to someone you trust, such as a family member, a friend, a co-worker, or a spiritual leader
  • Consider getting a restraining order to protect yourself
How can I help someone who is a victim of domestic violence?

Let your loved one know that being treated this way isn't healthy and that they are not to blame. You should:

  • Call 911 if there is immediate danger
  • Watch for the signs of abuse. Learn about the signs and keep track of the ones that you see.
  • Find out about local resources. Get the addresses and phone numbers of some local resources in your community. Then you'll be able to share the information if the person is ready for it.
  • Set up a time to talk. Make sure you can have your conversation in a safe, private place. Your loved one's partner may have access to his or her cell phone or computer, so be careful about sharing information over text or email.
  • Be specific about why you are worried. Describe the behaviors that concern you. Be as specific as possible when explaining why you are worried.
  • Plan for safety. If your loved one is ready to leave an abusive partner, help make a plan for getting out of the relationship as safely as possible. A domestic violence counselor can help with making a safety plan.
  • Be patient and do not judge. You should talk about your concerns with your loved one, but you need to understand that they may not be ready to talk about it. Let them know that you're available to talk at any time, and that you will listen without judging them.

Domestic Violence
Women
Injuries and Wounds
Social/Family Issues
... it. Domestic violence can happen to men or women of all different ages. It affects people with ...