Health Topics

Substance abuse problems

Drug Use and Addiction
National Library of Medicine
Drug abuse
Hallucinogens
Substance Abuse
What are drugs?

Drugs are chemical substances that can change how your body and mind work. They include prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs.

What is drug use?

Drug use, or misuse, includes

  • Using illegal substances, such as
    • Anabolic steroids
    • Club drugs
    • Cocaine
    • Heroin
    • Inhalants
    • Marijuana
    • Methamphetamines
  • Misusing prescription medicines, including opioids. This means taking the medicines in a different way than the health care provider prescribed. This includes
    • Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else
    • Taking a larger dose than you are supposed to
    • Using the medicine in a different way than you are supposed to. For example, instead of swallowing your tablets, you might crush and then snort or inject them.
    • Using the medicine for another purpose, such as getting high
  • Misusing over-the-counter medicines, including using them for another purpose and using them in a different way than you are supposed to

Drug use is dangerous. It can harm your brain and body, sometimes permanently. It can hurt the people around you, including friends, families, kids, and unborn babies. Drug use can also lead to addiction.

What is drug addiction?

Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease. It causes a person to take drugs repeatedly, despite the harm they cause. Repeated drug use can change the brain and lead to addiction.

The brain changes from addiction can be lasting, so drug addiction is considered a "relapsing" disease. This means that people in recovery are at risk for taking drugs again, even after years of not taking them.

Does everyone who takes drugs become addicted?

Not everyone who uses drugs becomes addicted. Everyone's bodies and brains are different, so their reactions to drugs can also be different. Some people may become addicted quickly, or it may happen over time. Other people never become addicted. Whether or not someone becomes addicted depends on many factors. They include genetic, environmental, and developmental factors.

Who is at risk for drug addiction?

Various risk factors can make you more likely to become addicted to drugs, including

  • Your biology. People can react to drugs differently. Some people like the feeling the first time they try a drug and want more. Others hate how it feels and never try it again.
  • Mental health problems. People who have untreated mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to become addicted. This can happen because drug use and mental health problems affect the same parts of the brain. Also, people with these problems may use drugs to try to feel better.
  • Trouble at home. If your home is an unhappy place or was when you were growing up, you might be more likely to have a drug problem.
  • Trouble in school, at work, or with making friends. You might use drugs to get your mind off these problems.
  • Hanging around other people who use drugs. They might encourage you to try drugs.
  • Starting drug use when you're young. When kids use drugs, it affects how their bodies and brains finish growing. This increases your chances of becoming addicted when you're an adult.
What are the signs that someone has a drug problem?

Signs that someone has a drug problem include

  • Changing friends a lot
  • Spending a lot of time alone
  • Losing interest in favorite things
  • Not taking care of themselves - for example, not taking showers, changing clothes, or brushing their teeth
  • Being really tired and sad
  • Eating more or eating less than usual
  • Being very energetic, talking fast, or saying things that don't make sense
  • Being in a bad mood
  • Quickly changing between feeling bad and feeling good
  • Sleeping at strange hours
  • Missing important appointments
  • Having problems at work or at school
  • Having problems in personal or family relationships
What are the treatments for drug addiction?

Treatments for drug addiction include counseling, medicines, or both. Research shows that combining medicines with counseling gives most people the best chance of success.

The counseling may be individual, family, and/or group therapy. It can help you

  • Understand why you got addicted
  • See how drugs changed your behavior
  • Learn how to deal with your problems so you won't go back to using drugs
  • Learn to avoid places, people, and situations where you might be tempted to use drugs

Medicines can help with the symptoms of withdrawal. For addiction to certain drugs, there are also medicines that can help you re-establish normal brain function and decrease your cravings.

If you have a mental disorder along with an addiction, it is known as a dual diagnosis. It is important to treat both problems. This will increase your chance of success.

If you have a severe addiction, you may need hospital-based or residential treatment. Residential treatment programs combine housing and treatment services.

Can drug use and addiction be prevented?

Drug use and addiction are preventable. Prevention programs involving families, schools, communities, and the media may prevent or reduce drug use and addiction. These programs include education and outreach to help people understand the risks of drug use.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


Drug Misuse
Substance-Related Disorders
Substance Abuse Problems
What are drugs? Drugs are chemical substances that can change how your body and mind work. They include prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, ...
Pregnancy and Drug Use
National Library of Medicine
Alcohol Abuse in Pregnancy
Drug Abuse in Pregnancy
Pregnancy and Substance Abuse
Smoking in Pregnancy
Substance Abuse in Pregnancy

When you are pregnant, you are not just "eating for two." You also breathe and drink for two. If you smoke, use alcohol or take illegal drugs, so does your unborn baby.

To protect your baby, you should avoid

  • Tobacco.Smoking during pregnancy passes nicotine, carbon monoxide, and other harmful chemicals to your baby. This could cause many problems for your unborn baby's development. It raises the risk of your baby being born too small, too early, or with birth defects. Smoking can also affect babies after they are born. Your baby would be more likely to develop diseases such as asthma and obesity. There is also a higher risk of dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
  • Drinking alcohol. There is no known amount of alcohol that is safe for a woman to drink during pregnancy. If you drink alcohol when you are pregnant, your child could be born with lifelong fetal alcohol syndrome disorders (FASD). Children with FASD can have a mix of physical, behavioral, and learning problems.
  • Illegal drugs. Using illegal drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines may cause underweight babies, birth defects, or withdrawal symptoms after birth.
  • Misusing prescription drugs. If you are taking prescription medicines, carefully follow your health care provider's instructions. It can be dangerous to take more medicines than you are supposed to, use them to get high, or take someone else's medicines. For example, misusing opioids can cause birth defects, withdrawal in the baby, or even loss of the baby.

If you are pregnant and you are doing any of these things, get help. Your health care provider can recommend programs to help you quit. You and your baby's health depend on it.

Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health


Substance-Related Disorders
Pregnancy
Substance Abuse Problems
Pregnancy and Reproduction
Female Reproductive System
When you are pregnant, you are not just "eating for two." You also breathe and drink for two. If you smoke, use alcohol or take illegal drugs, so does your ...
Drugs and Young People
National Library of Medicine
Substance Abuse
Teen Drug Abuse
What is drug use?

Drug use, or misuse, includes

  • Using illegal substances, such as
    • Anabolic steroids
    • Club drugs
    • Cocaine
    • Heroin
    • Inhalants
    • Marijuana
    • Methamphetamines
  • Misusing prescription medicines, including opioids. This means taking the medicines in a different way than the health care provider prescribed. This includes
    • Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else
    • Taking a larger dose than you are supposed to
    • Using the medicine in a different way than you are supposed to. For example, instead of swallowing your tablets, you might crush and then snort or inject them.
    • Using the medicine for another purpose, such as getting high
  • Misusing over-the-counter medicines, including using them for another purpose and using them in a different way than you are supposed to.
Why are drugs especially dangerous for young people?

Young people's brains are growing and developing until they are their mid-20's. This is especially true of the prefrontal cortex, which is used to make decisions. Taking drugs when young can interfere with developmental processes occurring in the brain. It can also affect their decision-making. They may be more likely to do risky things, such as unsafe sex and dangerous driving.

The earlier young people start using drugs, the greater their chances of continuing to use them and become addicted later in life.Taking drugs when you are young can contribute to the development of adult health problems, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and sleep disorders.

Which drugs most commonly used by young people?

The drugs that are most commonly used by young people are alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Recently, more young people have started vaping tobacco and marijuana. There is still a lot we don't know about the dangers of vaping. Some people have unexpectedly gotten very ill or have even died after vaping. Because of this, young people should stay away from vaping.

Why do young people take drugs?

There are many different reasons why a young person may take drugs, including

  • To fit in. Young people may do drugs because they want to be accepted by friends or peers who are doing drugs.
  • To feel good. Abused drugs can produce feelings of pleasure.
  • To feel better. Some young people suffer from depression, anxiety, stress-related disorders, and physical pain. They may do drugs to try to get some relief.
  • To do better in academics or sports. Some young people may take stimulants for studying or anabolic steroids to improve their athletic performance.
  • To experiment. Young people often want to try new experiences, especially ones that they think are thrilling or daring.
Which young people are at risk for drug use?

Different factors may raise a young person's risk for drug use, including

  • Stressful early life experiences, such child abuse, child sexual abuse, and other forms of trauma
  • Genetics
  • Prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs
  • Lack of parental supervision or monitoring
  • Having peers and/or friends who use drugs
What are the signs that a young person has a drug problem?
  • Changing friends a lot
  • Spending a lot of time alone
  • Losing interest in favorite things
  • Not taking care of themselves - for example, not taking showers, changing clothes, or brushing their teeth
  • Being really tired and sad
  • Eating more or eating less than usual
  • Being very energetic, talking fast, or saying things that don't make sense
  • Being in a bad mood
  • Quickly changing between feeling bad and feeling good
  • Missing important appointments
  • Having problems at school - missing class, getting bad grades
  • Having problems in personal or family relationships
  • Lying and stealing
  • Memory lapses, poor concentration, lack of coordination, slurred speech, etc.
Can drug use in young people be prevented?

Drug use and addiction are preventable. Prevention programs involving families, schools, communities, and the media may prevent or reduce drug use and addiction. These programs include education and outreach to help people understand the risks of drug use.

You can help prevent your children from using drugs through

  • Good communication with your children
  • Encouragement, so your children can build confidence and a strong sense of self. It also helps parents promote cooperation and reduce conflict.
  • Teaching your children problem-solving skills
  • Setting limits, to teach your children self-control and responsibility, provide safe boundaries, and show them that you care
  • Supervision, which helps parents recognize developing problems, promote safety, and stay involved
  • Knowing your children's friends

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


Substance-Related Disorders
Children and Teenagers
Substance Abuse Problems
... you care Supervision, which helps parents recognize developing problems, promote safety, and stay involved Knowing your children's friends NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse
Prescription Drug Misuse
National Library of Medicine
Drug Abuse, Prescription
Prescription Drug Abuse

If you take a medicine in a way that is different from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug misuse. It could be

  • Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else
  • Taking a larger dose than you are supposed to
  • Taking the medicine in a different way than you are supposed to. This might be crushing tablets and then snorting or injecting them.
  • Using the medicine for another purpose, such as getting high

Misusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants.

Every medicine has some risk of side effects. Doctors take this into account when prescribing medicines. People who misuse these drugs may not understand the risks. The medicines may not be safe for them, especially at higher doses or when taken with other medicines.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


Drug Prescriptions
Substance-Related Disorders
Prescription Drug Overuse
Substance Abuse Problems
If you take a medicine in a way that is different from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug misuse. It could be Taking a medicine ...
Underage Drinking
National Library of Medicine
Alcohol and Youth
Teenage Drinking

Alcohol is the most widely misused substance among America's youth. Drinking by young people has big health and safety risks. It is dangerous because it

  • Causes many deaths and injuries
  • Can lead to poor decisions about engaging in risky behavior, such as drinking and driving or unprotected sex
  • Increases the risk of physical and sexual assault
  • Can lead to other problems, such as trouble in school
  • May interfere with brain development
  • Increases the risk of alcohol problems later in life

Kids often begin drinking to look "cool" or fit in with their peers. Parents can help their kids avoid alcohol problems. Open communication and conversations about drinking are important. So is being involved in your child's life. Get help for your child if you suspect a drinking problem.

NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


Underage Drinking
Adolescent
Alcohol Drinking
Children and Teenagers
Substance Abuse Problems
... for your child if you suspect a drinking problem. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Methamphetamine
National Library of Medicine
Amphetamines
Chalk
Crystal
Glass
Ice
Meth
Speed
Tina

Methamphetamine - meth for short - is a very addictive stimulant drug. It is a powder that can be made into a pill or a shiny rock (called a crystal). The powder can be eaten or snorted up the nose. It can also be mixed with liquid and injected into your body with a needle. Crystal meth is smoked in a small glass pipe.

Meth at first causes a rush of good feelings, but then users feel edgy, overly excited, angry, or afraid. Meth use can quickly lead to addiction. It causes medical problems including

  • Making your body temperature so high that you pass out
  • Severe itching
  • "Meth mouth" - broken teeth and dry mouth
  • Thinking and emotional problems

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


Methamphetamine
Substance Abuse Problems
Methamphetamine - meth for short - is a very addictive stimulant drug. It is a powder that can be made into a pill or a shiny rock (called a crystal). The powder can be eaten ...
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Treatment
National Library of Medicine
Alcohol Abuse Treatment
Alcoholism Treatment
What is an alcohol use disorder?

An alcohol use disorder (AUD) is drinking that causes distress and harm. It is a medical condition in which you

  • Drink alcohol compulsively
  • Can't control how much you drink
  • Feel anxious, irritable, and/or stressed when you are not drinking

An AUD can range from mild to severe, depending on the symptoms. Severe AUD is sometimes called alcoholism or alcohol dependence.

What are the treatments for alcohol use disorder?

Most people with an alcohol use disorder can benefit from some form of treatment. Medical treatments include medicines and behavioral therapies. For many people, using both types gives them the best results. People who are getting treatment for AUD may also find it helpful to go to a support group such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). If you have an AUD and a mental illness, it is important to get treatment for both.

Some people may need intensive treatment for AUD. They may go to a residential treatment center for rehabilitation (rehab). Treatment there is highly structured. It usually includes several different kinds of behavioral therapies. It may also include medicines for detox (medical treatment for alcohol withdrawal) and/or for treating the AUD.

Which medicines can treat alcohol use disorder?

Three medicines are approved to treat AUD:

  • Disulfiram causes unpleasant symptoms such as nausea and skin flushing whenever you drink alcohol. Knowing that drinking will cause these unpleasant effects may help you stay away from alcohol.
  • Naltrexone blocks the receptors in your brain that make you feel good when you drink alcohol. It can also reduce your craving for alcohol. This can help you cut back on your drinking.
  • Acamprosate helps you avoid alcohol after you have quit drinking. It works on multiple brain systems to reduce your cravings, especially just after you have quit drinking.

Your health care provider can help you figure out if one of these medicines is right for you. They are not addictive, so you don't have to worry about trading one addiction for another. They are not a cure, but they can help you manage AUD. This is just like taking medicines to manage a chronic disease such as asthma or diabetes.

Which behavioral therapies can treat alcohol use disorder?

Another name for behavioral therapies for AUD is alcohol counseling. It involves working with a health care professional to identify and help change the behaviors that lead to your heavy drinking.

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) helps you identify the feelings and situations that can lead to heavy drinking. It teaches you coping skills, including how to manage stress and how to change the thoughts that cause you to want to drink. You may get CBT one-on-one with a therapist or in small groups.
  • Motivational enhancement therapy helps you build and strengthen the motivation to change your drinking behavior. It includes about four sessions over a short period of time. The therapy starts with identifying the pros and cons of seeking treatment. Then you and your therapist work on forming a plan for making changes in your drinking. The next sessions focus on building up your confidence and developing the skills you need to be able to stick to the plan.
  • Marital and family counseling includes spouses and other family members. It can help to repair and improve your family relationships. Studies show that strong family support through family therapy may help you to stay away from drinking.
  • Brief interventions are short, one-on-one or small-group counseling sessions. It includes one to four sessions. The counselor gives you information about your drinking pattern and potential risks. The counselor works with you to set goals and provide ideas that may help you make a change.
Is treatment for alcohol use disorder effective?

For most people, treatment for an AUD is helpful. But overcoming an alcohol use disorder is an ongoing process, and you may relapse (start drinking again). You should look at relapse as a temporary setback, and keep trying. Many people repeatedly try to cut back or quit drinking, have a setback, then try to quit again. Having a relapse does not mean that you cannot recover. If you do relapse, it is important to return to treatment right away, so you can learn more about your relapse triggers and improve your coping skills. This may help you be more successful the next time.

NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


Alcohol-Related Disorders
Alcohol-Related Disorders
Substance Abuse Problems
What is an alcohol use disorder? An alcohol use disorder (AUD) is drinking that causes distress and harm. It is a medical condition in which you Drink ...
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)
National Library of Medicine
Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol Dependence
Alcohol Withdrawal
Alcoholism
Binge Drinking
Drinking
Substance Abuse
What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)?

For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. However, about 18 million adult Americans have an alcohol use disorder (AUD). This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. AUD can range from mild to severe, depending on the symptoms. Severe AUD is sometimes called alcoholism or alcohol dependence.

AUD is a disease that causes

  • Craving - a strong need to drink
  • Loss of control - not being able to stop drinking once you've started
  • Negative emotional state - feeling anxious and irritable when you are not drinking
What is binge drinking?

Binge drinking is drinking so much at once that your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level is 0.08% or more. For a man, this usually happens after having 5 or more drinks within a few hours. For a woman, it is after about 4 or more drinks within a few hours. Not everyone who binge drinks has an AUD, but they are at higher risk for getting one.

What are the dangers of too much alcohol?

Too much alcohol is dangerous. Heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain cancers. It may lead to liver diseases, such as fatty liver disease and cirrhosis. It can also cause damage to the brain and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide.

How do I know if I have an alcohol use disorder (AUD)?

You may have an AUD if you can answer yes to two or more of these questions:

In the past year, have you

  • Ended up drinking more or for a longer time than you had planned to?
  • Wanted to cut down or stop drinking, or tried to, but couldn't?
  • Spent a lot of your time drinking or recovering from drinking?
  • Felt a strong need to drink?
  • Found that drinking - or being sick from drinking - often interfered with your family life, job, or school?
  • Kept drinking even though it was causing trouble with your family or friends?
  • Given up or cut back on activities that you enjoyed just so you could drink?
  • Gotten into dangerous situations while drinking or after drinking? Some examples are driving drunk and having unsafe sex.
  • Kept drinking even though it was making you feel depressed or anxious? Or when it was adding to another health problem?
  • Had to drink more and more to feel the effects of the alcohol?
  • Had withdrawal symptoms when the alcohol was wearing off? They include trouble sleeping, shakiness, irritability, anxiety, depression, restlessness, nausea, and sweating. In severe cases, you could have a fever, seizures, or hallucinations.

If you have any of these symptoms, your drinking may already be a cause for concern. The more symptoms you have, the more serious the problem is.

What should I do if I think that I might have an alcohol use disorder (AUD)?

If you think you might have an AUD, see your health care provider for an evaluation. Your provider can help make a treatment plan, prescribe medicines, and if needed, give you treatment referrals.

NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


Alcoholism
Substance Abuse Problems
What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. However, about 18 million adult Americans have an alcohol ...
Pregnancy and Opioids
National Library of Medicine

Many women need to take medicines while they are pregnant. But not all medicines are safe during pregnancy. Many medicines carry risks for you, your baby, or both. Opioids, especially when misused, can cause problems for you and your baby while you are pregnant.

What are opioids?

Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid.

A health care provider may give you a prescription opioid to reduce pain after you have had a major injury or surgery. You may get them if you have severe pain from health conditions like cancer. Some health care providers prescribe them for chronic pain.

Prescription opioids used for pain relief are generally safe when taken for a short time and as prescribed by your health care provider. However, opioid dependence, addiction, and overdose are still potential risks. These risks increase when these medicines are misused. Misuse means you are not taking the medicines according to your provider's instructions, you are using them to get high, or you are taking someone else's opioids.

What are the risks of taking opioids during pregnancy?

Taking opioids during pregnancy can cause problems for you and your baby. The possible risks include

  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) - withdrawal symptoms (irritability, seizures, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and poor feeding) in newborns
  • Neural tube defects - birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord
  • Congenital heart defects - problems with the structure of the baby's heart
  • Gastroschisis - a birth defect of the baby's abdomen, where the intestines stick outside of the body through a hole beside the belly button
  • Loss of the baby, either miscarriage (before 20 weeks of pregnancy) or stillbirth (after 20 or more weeks)
  • Preterm delivery - a birth before 37 weeks
  • Stunted growth, leading to low birthweight

Some women need to take opioid pain medicine while they are pregnant. If your health care provider suggests that you take opioids during pregnancy, you should first discuss the risks and benefits. Then if you both decide that you need to take the opioids, you should work together to try to minimize the risks. Some of the ways to do this include

  • Taking them for the shortest time possible
  • Taking the lowest dose that will help you
  • Carefully following your provider's instructions for taking the medicines
  • Contacting your provider if you have side effects
  • Going to all your follow-up appointments
If I am already taking opioids and I become pregnant, what should I do?

If you have been taking opioids and you become pregnant, contact your health care provider. You should not stop taking the opioids on your own. If you suddenly stop taking opioids, it could cause severe health problems for you or your baby. In some cases, stopping suddenly during pregnancy may be more harmful than taking the medicines.

Can I breastfeed while taking opioids?

Many women who regularly take opioid medicines can breastfeed. It depends on which medicine you are taking. Check with your health care provider before breastfeeding.

There are some women who should not breastfeed, such as those who have HIV or take illegal drugs.

What are the treatments for opioid use disorders in pregnancy?

If you are pregnant and have an opioid use disorder, do not stop taking opioids suddenly. Instead, see your health care provider so you can get help. The treatment for opioid use disorder is medication-assisted therapy (MAT). MAT includes medicine and counseling:

  • Medicine can reduce your cravings and withdrawal symptoms. For pregnant women, health care providers use either buprenorphine or methadone.
  • Counseling, including behavioral therapies, which can help you
    • Change your attitudes and behaviors related to drug use
    • Build healthy life skills
    • Continue taking your medicine and getting prenatal care

Opioid-Related Disorders
Pregnancy
Substance Abuse Problems
Pregnancy and Reproduction
Female Reproductive System
Many women need to take medicines while they are pregnant. But not all medicines are safe during pregnancy. Many medicines carry risks for you, your baby, ...
Dual Diagnosis
National Library of Medicine
What is dual diagnosis?

A person with dual diagnosis has both a mental disorder and an alcohol or drug problem. These conditions occur together frequently. About half of people who have a mental disorder will also have a substance use disorder at some point in their lives and vice versa. The interactions of the two conditions can worsen both.

Why do substance use disorders and mental disorders occur together?

Although these problems often occur together, this does not mean that one caused the other, even if one appeared first. In fact, it can be hard to figure out which came first. Researchers think that there are three possibilities as to why they occur together:

  • Common risk factors may contribute to both mental disorders and substance use disorders. These factors include genetics, stress, and trauma.
  • Mental disorders can contribute to drug use and substance use disorders. For example, people with mental disorders may use drugs or alcohol to try to feel better temporarily. This is known as self-medication. Also, mental disorders may change the brain to make it more likely you will become addicted.
  • Substance use and addiction can contribute to the development of a mental disorder. Substance use may change the brain in ways that make you more likely to develop a mental disorder.
What are the treatments for dual diagnosis?

Someone with a dual diagnosis must treat both conditions. For the treatment to be effective, you need to stop using alcohol or drugs. Treatments may include behavioral therapies and medicines. Also, support groups can give you emotional and social support. They are also a place where people can share tips about how to deal with day-to-day challenges.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
Mental Health and Behavior
Substance Abuse Problems
... to-day challenges. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse