Health Topics

Men

Men's Health
National Library of Medicine
Male Menopause
Menopause, Male

Most men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to

  • Smoke and drink
  • Make unhealthy or risky choices
  • Put off regular checkups and medical care

There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate cancer and low testosterone. Many of the major health risks that men face - like colon cancer or heart disease - can be prevented and treated with early diagnosis. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they are easier to treat. It's important to get the screening tests you need.


Men's Health
Men
Population Groups
Most men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to Smoke and drink Make unhealthy or risky choices Put off regular ...
Male Breast Cancer
National Library of Medicine
Breast Cancer, Male

Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between the ages of 60 and 70.

Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include

  • Dimpled or puckered skin
  • A red, scaly nipple or skin
  • Fluid discharge

Risk factors for male breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome.

Treatment for male breast cancer is usually a mastectomy, which is surgery to remove the breast. Other treatments include radiation, chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


Breast Neoplasms, Male
Cancers
Men
Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between the ages of 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren' ...
Male Infertility
National Library of Medicine
Infertility, Male
Low Sperm Count

Infertility is a term doctors use if a man hasn't been able to get a woman pregnant after at least one year of trying. Causes of male infertility include

  • Physical problems with the testicles
  • Blockages in the ducts that carry sperm
  • Hormone problems
  • A history of high fevers or mumps
  • Genetic disorders
  • Lifestyle or environmental factors

About a third of the time, infertility is because of a problem with the man. One third of the time, it is a problem with the woman. Sometimes no cause can be found.

If you suspect you are infertile, see your doctor. There are tests that may tell if you have fertility problems. When it is possible to find the cause, treatments may include medicines, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology. Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able to have babies.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


Infertility, Male
Men
Male Reproductive System
Infertility is a term doctors use if a man hasn't been able to get a woman pregnant after at least one year of trying. Causes of male infertility include Physical ...
Sexual Problems in Men
National Library of Medicine
Premature Ejaculation

Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Reduced or lost interest in sex
  • Problems with ejaculation
  • Low testosterone

Stress, illness, medicines, or emotional problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than a few months or cause distress for you or your partner, you should see your health care provider.


Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological
Men
Sexual Health Issues
Male Reproductive System
Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex Problems with ...
Testicular Disorders
National Library of Medicine
Male Genital Disorders
Semen
Undescended Testicle

Testicles, or testes, make male hormones and sperm. They are two egg-shaped organs inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin behind the penis. It's easy to injure your testicles because they are not protected by bones or muscles. Men and boys should wear athletic supporters when they play sports.

You should examine your testicles monthly and seek medical attention for lumps, redness, pain or other changes. Testicles can get inflamed or infected. They can also develop cancer. Testicular cancer is rare and highly treatable. It usually happens between the ages of 15 and 40.


Testicular Diseases
Endocrine System
Men
Sexual Health Issues
Male Reproductive System
Testicles, or testes, make male hormones and sperm. They are two egg-shaped organs inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin behind the penis. ... they are not protected by bones or muscles. Men and boys should wear athletic supporters when they ...
Penis Disorders
National Library of Medicine
Balanitis
Male Genital Disorders
Penile Disorders
Peyronie's Disease

Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include

  • Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or keep an erection
  • Priapism - a painful erection that does not go away
  • Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump called a plaque
  • Balanitis - inflammation of the skin covering the head of the penis, most often in men and boys who have not been circumcised
  • Penile cancer - a rare form of cancer, highly curable when caught early

Penile Diseases
Men
Sexual Health Issues
Male Reproductive System
... the head of the penis, most often in men and boys who have not been circumcised Penile ...
Vasectomy
National Library of Medicine
Male Sterilization
Sterilization

Vasectomy is a type of surgery that prevents a man from being able to get a woman pregnant. It is a permanent form of birth control.

A vasectomy works by cutting the tubes that carry the sperm out of the testicles. The surgery usually takes no more than 30 minutes. Most men go home the same day. In most cases, recovery takes less than a week. Having a vasectomy does not affect your sex life.

It takes about three months before it is effective. Your doctor will test your semen to make sure that there are no sperm in it.

Vasectomies can sometimes be reversed, but not always. Having a vasectomy does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS. Men who have had a vasectomy should still practice safe sex to avoid STDs.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


Vasectomy
Pregnancy and Reproduction
Men
Male Reproductive System
... usually takes no more than 30 minutes. Most men go home the same day. In most cases, ... against sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS. Men who have had a vasectomy should still practice ...
Klinefelter's Syndrome
National Library of Medicine
XXY male

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a condition that occurs in men who have an extra X chromosome. The syndrome can affect different stages of physical, language, and social development.

The most common symptom is infertility. Boys may be taller than other boys their age, with more fat around the belly. After puberty, KS boys may have

  • Smaller testes and penis
  • Breast growth
  • Less facial and body hair
  • Reduced muscle tone
  • Narrower shoulders and wider hips
  • Weaker bones
  • Decreased sexual interest
  • Lower energy

KS males may have learning or language problems. They may be quiet and shy and have trouble fitting in.

A genetic test can diagnose KS. There is no cure, but treatments are available. It is important to start treatment as early as possible. With treatment, most boys grow up to have normal lives.

Treatments include testosterone replacement therapy and breast reduction surgery. If needed, physical, speech, language, and occupational therapy may also help.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


Klinefelter Syndrome
Genetics/Birth Defects
Men
... syndrome (KS) is a condition that occurs in men who have an extra X chromosome. The syndrome ... Weaker bones Decreased sexual interest Lower energy KS males may have learning or language problems. They may ...
Chlamydia Infections
National Library of Medicine
What is chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat. Men can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat.

How do you get chlamydia?

You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman can also pass chlamydia to her baby during childbirth.

If you've had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can get re-infected if you have unprotected sex with someone who has it.

Who is at risk of getting chlamydia?

Chlamydia is more common in young people, especially young women. You are more likely to get it if you don't consistently use a condom, or if you have multiple partners.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

Chlamydia doesn't usually cause any symptoms. So you may not realize that you have it. People with chlamydia who have no symptoms can still pass the disease to others. If you do have symptoms, they may not appear until several weeks after you have sex with an infected partner.

Symptoms in women include

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge, which may have a strong smell
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Pain during intercourse

If the infection spreads, you might get lower abdominal pain, pain during sex, nausea, or fever.

Symptoms in men include

  • Discharge from your penis
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Burning or itching around the opening of your penis
  • Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (although this is less common)

If the chlamydia infects the rectum (in men or women), it can cause rectal pain, discharge, and/or bleeding.

How is chlamydia diagnosed?

There are lab tests to diagnose chlamydia. Your health care provider may ask you to provide a urine sample. For women, providers sometimes use (or ask you to use) a cotton swab to get a sample from your vagina to test for chlamydia.

Who should be tested for chlamydia?

You should go to your health provider for a test if you have symptoms of chlamydia, or if you have a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease. Pregnant women should get a test when they go to their first prenatal visit.

People at higher risk should get checked for chlamydia every year:

  • Sexually active women 25 and younger
  • Older women who have new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted disease
  • Men who have sex with men (MSM)
What are the complications of chlamydia?

In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications.

Men often don't have health problems from chlamydia. Sometimes it can infect the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm). This can cause pain, fever, and, rarely, infertility.

Both men and women can develop reactive arthritis because of a chlamydia infection. Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that happens as a "reaction" to an infection in the body.

Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. It may also make it more likely for your baby to be born too early.

Untreated chlamydia may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV/AIDS.

What are the treatments for chlamydia?

Antibiotics will cure the infection. You may get a one-time dose of the antibiotics, or you may need to take medicine every day for 7 days. Antibiotics cannot repair any permanent damage that the disease has caused.

To prevent spreading the disease to your partner, you should not have sex until the infection has cleared up. If you got a one-time dose of antibiotics, you should wait 7 days after taking the medicine to have sex again. If you have to take medicine every day for 7 days, you should not have sex again until you have finished taking all of the doses of your medicine.

It is common to get a repeat infection, so you should get tested again about three months after treatment.

Can I prevent chlamydia?

The only sure way to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading chlamydia.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Chlamydia Infections
Infections
Sexual Health Issues
Female Reproductive System
Male Reproductive System
What is chlamydia? Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and ...
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health
National Library of Medicine
Bisexual Health
Homosexuality
LGBT Health
Lesbian Health
Transgender Health

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals have special health concerns besides the usual ones that affect most men and women. On this page you'll find information about these specific health issues.


Homosexuality
Bisexuality
Transgender Persons
Health Services for Transgender Persons
Sexual and Gender Minorities
Women
Men
Population Groups
Sexual Health Issues
Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals have special health concerns besides the usual ones that affect most men and women. On this page you'll ...